•Condemnation trails exclusion of deportees, expelled migrants from trainings
•Large return of migrants may worsen insecurity- House Committee Chair
on Migration and Refugees •We have trained, empowered over 7, 000
returnees this year –National Commission for Refugees director
No fewer than 15, 000 stranded Nigerian migrants have in the last two years voluntarily returned to the country with the assistance of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), a United Nations migration agency . The IOM in July 2017 said roughly 3,800 Nigerian migrants would receive in-kind reintegration assistance to start businesses, study or cover medical and accommodation costs after they return home from other African countries (an estimated 3,000 migrants) and from EU member states (800 migrants) over a period of three years (2017 to 2020). This, according to the organisation, represents a major scale-up in the reintegration assistance that IOM provided previously. More than one and a half years after their return, many of the returnees are yet to get the expected empowerment from IOM even after attending the reintegration programme facilitated by the organisation. The returnees’ woes are compounded by the failure of government to fulfil myriads of promises made to them on return to the country. With the number of migrants coming back to the country constantly increasing, INNOCENT DURU, in this report, examines the implication for the socio-economic and security situation of the country.
After a hellish experience during her turbulent sojourn in Libya, Anthonia heaved a sigh of relief when the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) came to evacuate her and other stranded migrants in the North African country back home to Nigeria.
Anthonia’s joy was not just that she was returning home unscathed, she was elated that after all she had suffered, there was hope that she would later have something to fall back on because she was voluntarily returned by the IOM.
Her confidence level rose when she was invited to participate in a reintegration programme by IOM in Lagos, after which she would be empowered. But that never came. Her vivacity gradually fizzled out after a long time of fruitlessly waiting for IOM’s support.
“I was part of the people brought back by IOM. When we came back, they promised that they would support us by starting businesses for us. I was part of the reintegration programme but I wasn’t empowered. I came back last year April. They accommodated us during the training and also reimbursed us for the money we spent on transportation. The training I attended was held in Lagos and I was given N5, 000 for transportation.
“They have not given me anything after that time. I have been in touch with them. They said they would support and asked me to provide some documents. I have been on it but the latest I heard from them was that they have transferred my case to another person. They have not replied me since then. I am acquiring skills in fashion designs. I have not received any support from the government,” she said in a tone laden with disappointment.
Anthonia is not alone in this. Sifahu Lasisi, who also came back through the Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration (AVRR), also spoke of how her hope of bouncing back to financial independence through the support of IOM was dashed.
“I attended the training at IOM’s office located at Isaac John’s Street, Ikeja. They trained us on how to do business and make profit. For the six days we spent going to take part in the training, I was paid N6, 000. I have not received further help thereafter. I had gone to their office several times but nothing came out of it. I was forced to give up. I have nobody to help me.”
Also reliving his frustration waiting for IOM’s support, another returnee brought back under the AVRR programme, Christian, said: “I came back last year. I was one of the people brought back by IOM. I took part in the reintegration programme. I spent about a week attending the programme. They taught us some hand work but I told them that I am a driver.
“I have not been able to reach IOM officials after the training. I don’t even have their contact anymore. When we returned to the country, they promised us that they would empower us but I have not heard anything from them. I am surprised and disappointed.
“I have been helping people to wash car since I came back just to make both ends meet. I want the government to assist us. I am a driver and need a job to earn a living.” It was the same sad tale for Vitalis who also took part in the IOM’s reintegration programme. “I attended the training but got no support thereafter,” he said.
When The Nation called one of the numbers of the IOM officials, who was identified as Tope, to know why the returnees have not been empowered in line with the organisation’s mandate, he rhetorically asked: “What are their names? Who gave you my number? The person who gave you my number should call me. I don’t know how you got my number. I can’t respond to that question. Who are those people? Give me their names. Please oga, Iam very busy. I can’t answer that your question I beg o. I should know the people that made the allegation.”
Our correspondent subsequently asked Sifahu who provided the IOM official’s mobile to call him.
The embattled returnee later called to inform our correspondent that Tope neither answered her call nor called back. “He also did not respond to a text message I sent to him,” Sifahu said disconsolately.
The Nation subsequently contacted the European Union office in Nigeria to find out why some of the migrants who voluntarily returned with IOM were yet to be empowered.
The International Aid/Cooperation Officer Migration, Drugs and Organised Crime, EU Delegation to Nigeria and ECOWAS, Eleni Zerzelido, declined speaking on the phone but on two occasions requested that our correspondent should send messages to her.
As at the time of filing this report, Eleni was yet to respond to the messages sent via WhatsApp and regular text message.
The EU and the IOM entered into a partnership for the Protection and Reintegration of Migrants, which was launched in Nigeria on 20 July, 2017. The European Union Trust Fund (EUTF) support is part of the EU–IOM Initiative.
Returnees lament successive governments’ failed promises
The frustration of not being empowered by IOM for many of the returnees is bearable compared to the failure of successive governments in the country to make good their promises to the beleaguered migrants.
Some of the returnees in Edo State told The Nation how they went into agriculture to make both ends meet and shun the temptation of embarking on another round of irregular migration but got no support. They recounted how they formed cooperative societies to enable them access loans but ended up disappointed.
One of the leaders of the cooperative groups, Pastor Dongo, said: “ I am the head of Victory Farmers Cooperative Society. We are into fish farming. I actually head two cooperative groups and both are into fish farming. We have not received any support from any government. Edo State government under Obaseki trained us but we are yet to be empowered. When they made the promises to us, we were praising them all over the social media but at the end nothing came out of it.
“This is why most of us went to hustle on our own. It has not been easy hustling without support. I attended training on fish farming for good three months, wasting all my money on transportation. Some of my cooperative members don’t have money. I have to foot their bill in order to encourage them. At the end, like I said, we are just at the mercy of fate. We only thank God that we are still alive.”
Expressing fears about the large number of jobless returnees in the country, Dongo said: “The situation of things in the country is an eyesore. In my area, once it is 7 O’ clock, you will not see a single fly outside. Yesterday (Tuesday), there were gunshots for good three hours. Things are getting out of hand.
“The major problem of our youths is unemployment and hunger. I believe strongly that if our youths are empowered and they work during the day, they would sleep at night. But when they are idle in the day, they would be busy at night.
“Some of my members have been expressing the desire to travel again but being a pastor, I have been talking to them, giving them hope that one day, God will help us. Some of them have started learning how to repair generators and other skills. Nobody has left in my group but it cannot be zero per cent in all the groups. Some will come today and in the next three months, they are back again.”
For Chidi, the head of Fish Farmers Cooperative Society, it was endless lamentation as he relives the ordeal of his members . “No government has ever empowered us. We are a registered body and we have our certificate. Since the expected empowerment from the govern ment didn’t come through, we are operating individually, but we hold meetings from time to time. We are not happy with the state of things. It is because of lack of support that the cooperative society is not functioning the way it should be.
“It is not everybody in the group that has the money to start the business of fish farming. It is those whose parents helped to raise funds that have started farming. Our personal efforts are grossly insufficient but instead of staying back and doing nothing, we have decided to be productive and take care of our families. We have made efforts to get loans from a new generation bank we opened an account with but nothing came out of it after they had tossed us up and down,” he said.
Chidi suddenly became emotional as he recounted how some of his frustrated members have perished trying to make another attempt at going abroad. “Many of our members have gone back through the desert to places like Morocco because there was no hope of empowerment from the government. Many of them even died in the process because they there was nobody to assist them.”
When The Nation cornered Tony Jimoh, the leader of Snail Farming Cooperative Society, he told of how they registered the group last year with the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, adding: “We are 27 in my group. Some other groups have 27 members each too. Our farmland is more than four hectares. We contributed money to get the land. Nobody has given us any support since we started. They have only been promising to assist without fulfilling it. They only brag and do nothing. We came back from Libya in 2011. We started the group in 2013 but it was not registered. It has been promises galore since then till this time.”
Former leader of the Nigerian Migrants in Tripoli, Libya, Sidi Yakubu, who is based in Kogi State, also said: “Government has done nothing to empower us. I came back in 2011 and have received no form of assistance since then. I came in on as a diplomatic returnee. I have been on the street since I came back. I have been part of one or two civil society groups which have helped in one way or the other.
“There are dangers in continuously bringing people back without providing jobs for them. They could be used as thugs during election period and can be engaged in criminal activities. The way out is for the government to train and empower returnees and give them a conducive environment to operate in. I went to Libya legitimately. I worked there for eight years with an international organisation. I couldn’t take the risk of staying back there because my life was at risk. The rebels raided my house and brought it down.
We have been training, empowering returnees- National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and IDPs (NCFRMI)
The Director, Refugee and Migrants at the National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and IDPs (NCFRMI) , Hamidu Lawal, in a chat with our correspondent, dismissed the allegations of the returnees, saying that the commission has always trained and empowered returnees. “We actually do empowerment, which we call Durable Solution. We don’t it not only for migrants but also for IDPs and persons of concern. This empowerment is in phases. When migrants return, we do NEEDS Assessment.
“We aggregate their needs, knowing those who want to go to school and those who want to do other things. We take an aggregate of whatever they want to do. Most of these returnees, especially those stranded in Libya and Cameroon are adults who want to do something for livelihood and not education. We have a training skill for them, which we do together with our partners like the IOM and others”.
This year, he said, “We have trained over 7, 000 of them. We do this sometimes on our own and sometimes with our partners. Thereafter, we empower them. If you want to open a shop, we will get a shop for you, buy the goods and pay the rent for at least two years. We paid rent for those who came back from Cameroon; we gave them food for six months and empower them in a trade after training.
“When they come back, we take them back to their local communities or any communities they choose to stay in and we empower them from there. Last week, we set up a cooperative group in Numan, Adamawa State. It is a rice milling cooperative. We set up the cooperatives and gave them the machines and capital to do their work. We are going to do the same thing in oil mill in Adamawa State. We teach others on how to make soap and other skills.
“The figure of migrants who have been brought back is over than 14, 000. I know that NEMA brought back 2, 100; IOM has brought back over 16, 000 migrants. Those who are deported because of immigration problems are being brought back on a regular basis.”
He further pointed out that “some of the migrants don’t understand that this intervention is in their interest. Some of them disappear immediately they arrive. Even when we have given them SIM cards so that we can keep in touch, they don’t come back. It is not the fault of the intervening authorities. It is the fault of the beneficiaries. Some of them want to be given physical cash. The programme is tailored in such a way that the cash doesn’t get to their hands. If it is a store he wants, we would do that and get the equipment.
“Some of these people coming from Mali, Europe and so on have criminal history. Most of them are returning for immigration related offences. Those ones fizzle away immediately they arrive. Some of them because of circumstances key into this programme. The ones that came back from Cameroon because they are refugees are fully part of the process. Most of them have been returned to their villages and empowered.”
Stakeholder decry returnees’ plight
Some stakeholders on migration issues in the country, who spoke with our correspondent, flayed the plight of the returnees.
The Director of the Centre for Youth Integrated Development (CYID), Victor Aihawu, said: “When we met in Morocco, the international reintegration officer of IOM said if reintegration does not lead to financial independence, that it is not sustainable. IOM does not work with forced deportation. They deal with voluntary returns. But the truth is that there are so many people that came under that voluntary return that they have not implemented their programmes. Because I don’t work with IOM, I wouldn’t know what the problem is.
“The NCRI is supposed to be the agency supervising the work that IOM is doing in Nigeria. IOM is not the owner of the funds. They are only working with the money given to them by EU. The NCRI is in the best position to answer why this and this have not been done. If the NCRI asks IOM that they are aware that after one and a half years, so many returnees have not gone through their reintegration programme, what is the problem? IOM will immediately respond to them because if they fail to do that, the NCRI can write to the EU and terminate their contract.
Unfortunately, the NCRI is not supervising anything. When you have a country where their migration management is 100 per cent in the hands of foreign donors, he who pays the piper will dictate the tune. The standard operating procedures in Nigeria, which we are reviewing now, only covers voluntary return because it was IOM that sponsored the draft. Nigerians are Nigerians irrespective of how they came back. tion, expulsion, they all should be entitled to reintegration because you don’t even know the danger of receiving people you don’t even have their background information. Most of these returnees didn’t leave this country as criminals, drug addicts or rapists. They developed those characters over there and Nigeria is just receiving them without proper monitoring. Nobody monitors them, when they enter the country they disappear and that is all.”
Also expressing concern about the plight of the returnees, the Chairman, House of Representatives Committee on IDPs, Refugees and North East Initiatives, Hon. Muhammed Umar Jega, said it is a serious matter. “In the first place, they are leaving their country for another in search of greener pasture. When they get there, they are declared persona non grata because they don’t have valid documents. This comprises educated and non-educated. We need to make our system better and make our economy work so that people don’t leave the country.
“It has serious security implications. When people are idle, their minds would become the devil’s workshop, as the saying goes. Some people cannot even provide some basic needs. You know it is a serious matter. The way forward is to make our system work.”
He added: “This is the work of the executive. Ours is to enact the law and also ensure there is supervision and implementation of this law, that is an oversight on the part of the executive to ensure they are doing the right thing.
“This question is better answered by the minister of humanitarian affairs because they are supposed to provide a policy direction and where they think they need some legal framework from us, they should let us know. The minister of humanitarian affairs should make adequate provisions for the rehabilitation of those returning so that they will be reintegrated back to their families.”
Human trafficking: PJI urges proper trauma management for returnees
The Pathfinder Justice Initiative (PJI), a Non-Governmental Organisation, has called for proper trauma care for migrant returnees to prevent them from becoming vulnerable to subsequent trafficking.
Evon Benson-Idahosa, the Executive Director, PJI, made the call at a Rehabilitation Workshop for Providers Serving Survivors of Human Trafficking held in Benin on Thursday.
The workshop was organised by PJI and funded by INSighT- Building Capacity to deal with human trafficking and transit routes to Nigeria, Italy and Sweden.
Benson-Idahosa said that a majority of returnee-migrants usually undergo different traumatic situations and needed to be properly rehabilitated before being integrated back into the society. She noted that if the migrant returnees were not properly rehabilitated, they would not be able to put into good use any form of skills acquisition or empowerment received.
“Providers serving survivors should know how to handle traumatised victims because many of them, especially females, have been raped and have gone through horrible experiences during their trafficking journey.
“The providers should know that there are best practices in terms of handling trafficked victims; they need to use a survivor centred approach to prioritise the needs of the victims,” she said.
She called on the government at all levels to partner more with NGOs on providing best traumatic care for returned migrants in the country.
How Nigerian-American police officer burst human trafficking syndicate in US
A retried Nigerian American Police officer, Samuel Balogun narrated how he burst a human trafficking syndicate that specialized in using minors for prostitution.
“My biggest accomplishment was bursting a human trafficking crime,” Balogun said.
Giving details of how he executed the task, the dark skinned retired police officer said: “ There was a guy that was using minors for prostitution on the internet. I have an accent and when I speak people know I am an African. So, I had to go undercover and had to call the guy on the internet. I said ‘ hey! what is going on, I am in town. I am a truck driver and I want some girls.’ I asked how old? He said the younger they are, the more money. I said about 15 to 16 years. He said ok. I asked how many he could bring and he replied two. He said which hotel was I and I gave the name to him. He told me to hang up and he called back the hotel. He subsequently called me and asked if I was there and I said yes. He said he would be there in 20 minutes.
“We were waiting for him to come but he was smart too. He dropped the girls down the street and made them walk to the room. The girls asked how much I was ready to pay and wanted to take off their clothes but I said not yet. In the next room were officers listening to our conversation. When I make a signal, that means it is time for them to come in. but before you make the signal, you have to make sure they have mentioned the price, they have given the reason why they were there, so it doesn’t look like you are entrapping them. When I made the signal, the officers burst in and arrested everybody including me.
Thereafter, Balogun said the police processed the girls and after that, “they said look, you are minors and we know somebody is pushing you to do this. Now we don’t want to arrest you but tell us how to get to the boss. The girls cooperated and made as if they were leaving. When the man pulled up to pick them up, and that was how we arrested him. That stopped a lot of those crimes.”
Balogun said he was in Nigeria to bring his wealth of experience to bear on the disturbing security situation in the country. “ I am trying to bring back my experience as a police officer in the states to Nigeria. When you look at the #endsars period, the performance of the police was something that hurt my feelings. How can we make it better? How can we make the police job something that people will look with respect and want to join?”
He hinted that his security firm is involved in training not only police officers but “ I also train private security companies. I am in touch with a lot of private security companies in Nigeria. There is another concept which Nigeria is embracing right now.
“It is called community policing. In the states it is called neighbourhood policing or community policing. It works in a way that in every street, there would be a police officer that lives in that neighbourhood. You get to know the people and the people know you. In some apartments, they will give you a discount just for the police officer to be there because they know once a police officer is living there, the police car is outside and the crime level will reduce. People are more likely to talk to that officer because they know him. They are more able to tell him’ hey we know who committed that crime.’ For every crime, you need people to tell you what happened. You can have all the gadgets but if people are not talking, you can’t solve the crime.”
He further said: “I am training police officers, security companies and executive protection. What my security company is doing is to free the police officers from attachment to chiefs, politicians and all that. We train civilians to represent those officers so that they can go back to the street and do their normal jobs. We have what we call executive protection/training. We have people that follow the president. We can train you on how to be efficient and sometimes using less force, description tactics.”
Further expatiating on what his security firm does, the soft spoken officer said: “What my company is trying to do is to bring people to the table. We are trying to train companies that there is a better way of security where we can teach you how to defend yourself, how to prepare for any emergency, and how to use less force. I have a guy, a navy seal that worked for the United States of America. You will be amazed about what he can do. He can disarm you in a minute even when you come with AK 47. I am also bringing Hostage Negotiation, people that can talk to you when ransom has to be paid. In the US, we call it Hostage Negotiation. They can talk to these people, and know their psyche. It is a full package. When you come to my firm, you can see the whole spectrum and choose.”
As a vastly travelled person, Blagun said: “I travel a lot and in all the African nations is where you see officers with AK 47. They said it is more intimidating. Criminals use AK 47 in America too but we still don’t carry it. Is that the right weapon for the police officers, I leave that question open. “
On the attitude of the Nigerian authorities his plans, he said: “I have talked to a lot of people in higher positions. In some places I don’t want to mention, I have got good responses. My firm has done some things with certain private firms and the police. I have dealt with some highly placed security firms. So, this is not my first time here. We are looking at having training in Sheraton around July/August this year. It is going to be a big one. I am bringing a retired FBI agent, a navy seal, a retired marine , myself and may be two other officers.
“This is my country, I am proud of it. I am sad sometimes when you look at the security aspect of it. With my experience, I am trying to make it a better place. It has always been my passion to come back home. I am retired and don’t really need to work again. My benefits are okay untill I die. But why die with all this experience when I can pass it to the next person.”
Hundreds of thousands of people leave Britain due to pandemic
Hundreds of thousands of people have left Britain as a fallout of the pandemic on the economy, according to a study released yesterday.
There is an “unprecedented exodus” of workers born outside Britain, researchers at London’s Economic Statistics Centre of Excellence said.
“It seems that much of the burden of job losses during the pandemic has fallen on non-UK workers and has manifested itself in return migration, rather than unemployment,” said the authors.
The study is based on labour market data.
The trend was particularly notable in London, where one in five residents was born abroad.
The capital’s population has fallen by 700,000, the study said, adding that nationwide, the figure could be more than 1.3 million.
If these numbers are accurate, this is the largest decline in Britain’s population since World War II, according to the study.
No evidence suggests that similar numbers of British people who live abroad are returning to Britain.
However, this could be a temporary trend, the researchers said, noting that workers from abroad might return after the pandemic.
The British economy depends on workers from abroad and it is not only threatened by migration due to the pandemic.
Many industries fear the loss of skilled workers due to Britain’s departure from the European Union and stricter migration laws.
A further trend in 2021 is also causing concern, described as a “baby bust” by consultancy PwC, which said many couples were postponing having children due to the uncertainty caused by the pandemic.
This could lead to the lowest birth rate since 1900, PwC said in early January.
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