The International Organization for Migration (IOM) in coordination with the Government of Bangladesh earlier this month (10 July) released the report, Bangladesh: Survey on Drivers of Migration and Migrants’ Profiles which is the first to cover the country as a whole. Interviews were conducted in all 64 districts of the country reaching over 11,000 potential migrants who were arranging to migrate internationally.
Along with unpacking the nuances of what drives people to migrate, the research also presented the demographic and socioeconomic profiles of potential migrants. Previous studies on the drivers of migration in Bangladesh had been targeted and more limited in scope and scale.
The report found that the majority of potential migrants were young, working age men who had attained at least some level of formal education. Forty per cent of potential migrants were unemployed before electing to migrate, and 90 per cent had no personal income or insufficient income.
The report noted that Bangladeshi regular and irregular potential migrants are very similar. A general perception of migration in Bangladesh has been that irregular migrants are younger, less well educated and less likely to be employed. Instead, the report found that regular and irregular potential migrants are the same ages and have similar levels of education.
The key drivers of migration identified in the report were that most potential migrants were planning to migrate because they wanted better job opportunities and livelihoods. Another important reason for migration was to increase potential migrants’ social statuses.
The same things drew potential migrants to specific countries: the availability of jobs, access to social networks or the migration of a family member. The Middle East was the most popular destination, with Saudi Arabia the most popular country.
The report also debunked the widely held perception that migrants leave countries in the Global South to travel to countries in the Global North. But, as indicated in the data, this is not the case in Bangladesh. Instead, migration is predominately South – South, with most migrants going to countries in the Middle East or elsewhere in Asia.
Only 1.4 per cent of the respondents expressed interest in migrating to Europe and the Americas. Potential migrants were asked whether they would consider remaining in Bangladesh if certain changes took place, and, according to the survey, 91 per cent of potential migrants surveyed would consider staying in Bangladesh if there were more work opportunities.
Regular potential migrants were more likely to be unemployed than irregular potential migrants (42 per cent of regular potential migrants compared to 37 per cent of irregular). While the general perception is that irregular migrants make use of migration facilitators and their services, the findings from the study indicate that 71 per cent of migrants, who have registered their intention to travel with the government, also use migration facilitators to arrange their travel.
These potential migrants paid similar amounts to migration facilitators as the irregular migrants did. While regular potential migrants who only paid the government had low migration costs, the additional costs that some potential migrants paid to migration facilitators made the total costs paid by regular and irregular potential migrants comparable overall.
The largest amount paid (to a migration facilitator) was BDT 1.6 million (USD 18,857). Potential migrants to Europe and the Americas and the Middle East paid more to migrate than those going to other destinations. The average amount irregular potential migrants reported paying was BDT 229,488 (USD2,705), and 10 per cent of irregular migrants paid less than BDT 50,000 (USD 589).
The role of migrant networks was prominent during the preparatory arrangements of the respondents’ migration. Over 65 per cent of the potential migrants reported to have friends or extended family living in their potential destination country, many of which supported with documents, finding employment, financial support, transport and accommodation.
IOM’s Chief of Mission in Bangladesh, Giorgi Gigauri, expressed hope that “this important research will contribute to the evidence platform that we need for effective policymaking in Bangladesh.”
The report presents pre COVID-19 dynamics, however, the comprehensive analysis of drivers of migration and profiles of potential migrants will provide a baseline, which can be used to understand migration in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic as well.
Bangladesh is the sixth largest origin country for international migrants in the world, with 7.5 million Bangladeshi migrants living abroad as of 2019, according to the World Migration Report, 2020. Due to the importance of international migration to the country, the Government of Bangladesh has prioritized migration as a development strategy in its 7th Five Year Plan (2016-2020), and evidence-based policy formulation and programming is a key to achieve better migration management in any context.
This research is part of a series of reports funded by the European Union under the collaborative project Regional Evidence for Migration Analysis and Policy (REMAP) under the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) whose objective is to strengthen the evidence-based formulation and implementation of humanitarian and development policy and programming on migration in Bangladesh, as well as Afghanistan, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq and Pakistan.
IOM launches open South America portal
Buenos Aires – IOM, the International Organization for Migration, this week launched the Open South America Portal, a web platform providing migrants and stakeholders in the region with access to reliable and timely information on human mobility restrictions and health and safety measures adopted by governments in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Open South America, available in Spanish, English and Portuguese, shares official information by country on the latest measures, including border restrictions, quarantine requirements and COVID-19 tests for migrants and travellers.
The portal also provides updated information on authorized entry points and key places for travellers and migrants, such as consulates, migrant care and health centres, airports, border crossings points and ports. This information can be explored through an interactive map.
The platform, funded by the IOM Development Fund, is also accessible to vulnerable migrants who may be stranded or are at risk of receiving misinformation on migration.
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, South America has been one of the most impacted regions worldwide. According to the World Health Organization figures, as of 8 July 2021 there were 33,475,765 COVID-19 cumulative cases in the region, which represents 89 per cent of the total cases in Latin America, and 18 per cent of all infections recorded globally.
Countries such as Brazil, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador all experienced severe outbreaks. For example, Brazil currently reports the third highest number of cumulative cases (18,855,015) and second highest death toll (526,892) globally.
“Open South America will facilitate orderly, regular and responsible migration in South America amid the uncertain times of COVID-19 and after the pandemic,” said Minister Ana Laura Cachaza, General Director of Consular Affairs of the Government of Argentina.
“Migrants’ access to up-to-date information through innovative online tools is essential considering the changing migration dynamic in the region due to the COVID-19 pandemic,” said Marcelo Pisani, IOM Regional Director for South America.
29,000 Nigerians, Ghanaians, Somalians, other Africans migrated through the Mediterranean Sea to Europe in 2021 —IOM
The International Organisation for Migration has said that 29,000 individuals including Nigerians, Ghanaians, Somalians and other Africans have emigrated to Europe through the Mediterranean Sea this year.
About 13,000 were arrested by the coast guards and returned home while 761 migrants were said to have perished in the sea.
Disclosing this to journalists in Abuja on Friday, the Chief of Mission, IOM Nigeria, Mr Franz Celestin, said less than five per cent of migrants usually made it to Europe, adding that the vast majority stay in Africa.
He further said that a lot of migrants were trafficked within the Economic Community of West African States, adding that Mali was the number one destination point for trafficked Nigerian women.
Responding to questions on the number of people who have undertaken the perilous trip to Europe through the Mediterranean, the IOM Chief said, “A combination of unemployment and underemployment is pushing people to migrate.
“In this year, 29,000 migrants from Sub-Sahara Africa have migrated to Europe through the Mediterranean. About 13,000 were intercepted by the coastguard while 761 died.”
Celestin stressed the importance of tackling human trafficking which he said grossed about $150 billion annually.
“Traffickers make a lot of money and they would continue to do it until a coordinated response is evolved to stop them. We are collaborating with Interpol in this respect; we are connected to the Interpol i/247 database. We connected the MIDAS to the Interpol database where we pass the information on traffickers to the Interpol,” he stated.
Celestin explained that the IOM has been involved in the biometric registration of children in the North-East, noting that the agency has registered no fewer than 17,053 children in 18 different internally displaced person camps between 2019 and May 2021 in Borno State.
The agency chief also disclosed that IOM was involved in the G7 Famine Prevention and Humanitarian Compact for North-East.
FG condemns killing of Nigerian footballer in UK
The Federal government has condemned the alleged killing of a Nigerian Footballer, Kelvin Igweani, by the UK police.
Recall that Igweani, a Nigerian Footballer, was shot dead by officers, who attended a call out to a house, where a child was found with serious injuries.
Reacting, Hon. Abike Dabiri-Erewa, Chairman/CEO, Nigerians in Diaspora Commission (NIDCOM), in Abuja on Wednesday described the incident as very unfortunate,and sad.
Dabiri-Erewa condoled with the family of the deceased and the Nigerian communities in the UK while praying that God grants rest to the soul of the departed.
“We call on the UK government for a thorough and proper investigation to be carried out on the incident,” the statement added.
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