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Families of missing migrants in Ethiopia: Stories of absence in many forms

Too often, when we speak of migrants, we find ourselves having to speak about moments of extreme hardship, caught up in a narrative of crisis. Those who find themselves in detention in Libya, trafficked in the back of trucks, having sought new lives away from failing states, conflict and disaster. Today is International Migrants Day, a day to remember these individuals and reiterate the need to respect the rights and dignity of all. It is a day set aside by the United Nations to recognize the estimated 272 million migrants that are integral members of all our societies today

It has been more than a year since Asfaw last heard from his son Mesfin, who had decided to leave for South Africa. In part, Mesfin left because he was hoping to find his older brother, who had gone missing on his own migration journey years ago. He also wanted to improve his family’s living conditions. The last time his parents heard from him, he was in Malawi, when he called them to tell them he had made it that far. He never called again. Asfaw spoke gently:

“My sons were my hope. […] I am dying twice: because I lost them and because I lost hope. They used to help me till and farm the land. They were my pride. They were my hope. I am getting older and weaker.”

Many Ethiopian families have lost loved ones on migration journeys. While precise numbers do not exist, estimates from Ethiopia’s Bureau of Labour and Social Affairs suggest that nearly 6,000 Ethiopians died or went missing along the migration route towards South Africa between 2012 and 2019 alone. The International Organization for Migration (IOM)’s Missing Migrants Project has recorded the deaths of 1,073 Ethiopians on other migration routes, but the real number of deaths is likely much higher. Others may have lost touch with their families because they are held in detention, don’t have access to communication channels or for other reasons.

Last year, a research team coordinated by IOM spoke with the families of missing migrants in the neighbourhood of Kirkos, in Addis Ababa, and in Hadiya, in southern Ethiopia, to understand how the absence of their loved ones has had an impact on their lives and what obstacles they face as they search for them. Beyond this relatively small research project, there have been no other efforts to conduct research with families and communities that have lost people in the context of migration in Ethiopia.

The absence and unexplained fate of a loved one has multidimensional effects in the lives of the people they leave behind. The lack of information and certainty about the whereabouts of a missing loved one prevents families from grieving and moving on with their lives, and they have no choice but to construct their own explanations about the absence of their relative. In some areas of Ethiopia, traditional gender norms result in communities attributing the death or disappearance of a husband to the “bad luck” of the wife who stayed behind, which can have deep social implications, as Melat, the wife of a missing man, explained to our researcher:

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“Truly, this is the worst moment of my life. I don’t know why God tested me. His relatives frequently blame me because they assume that my husband is dead as a result of my “bad luck”. In our community, it is very common to blame wives whenever something wrong happens to their husbands. That is heartbreaking.”

The absence of a loved one and not knowing if they will ever return leaves families experiencing an ambiguous loss that defies resolution and disrupts or freezes the process of grieving. In the absence of proof about the fate of the missing person, families cannot practice rites of bereavement, as shared by Zinash, the mother of a young man who went missing:

“I always wish I could get back his remains. […] I know death is natural, but when someone dies somewhere unknown, it is too painful. In our culture, if someone is buried without the proper cultural and religious funeral rituals, it is considered a kind of “double death”. We experienced it first when we lost him, and yet again when we were unable to perform the mourning and burial.”

In Ethiopia, tradition and religious guidelines establish that families need to bury the remains of their relatives in the graveyard of their ancestors. Families help the deceased make the transition from the living world to the world of the dead through a series of religious and cultural rites which cannot take place without the remains. Socially, it is believed that the inability to recover the remains of a missing relative means that their family is cursed. Tesema, who is searching for his missing brother, explained:

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“Our grief would have not been as deep had we found our brother’s corpse and buried him in the graveyard of our grandfathers. [Worst] of all, in our community, it is believed as a huge curse for a family not to be able to get the remains of their dead family member. The whole family and their next generation will be considered cursed.”

Beyond carrying deep social meaning, absence has implications in the material conditions of families of missing migrants. Without official verification of a person’s death, relatives cannot claim inheritance or apply for state support. Women with ambiguous marital status are unable to claim ownership of the properties belonging to their missing husbands and are likely to face severe economic challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and their children. This is reflected in the testimony of Liya, whose husband went missing on the route to South Africa:

“I can’t talk about property or inherit the land before I get proof of the death of my husband. According to the tradition, his brothers control the land. I can’t go to the courts and get into a fight with his relatives. […] I live with his relatives. I depend on them. Everything is difficult for me.”

There is an additional type of absence that is common to cases of missing migrants, and that is the absence of institutional support. The families in Ethiopia who shared their stories with IOM had not received support to search for their relatives or to deal with the impacts of the loss. If they had approached the authorities, they were dismissed or blamed for not having prevented their relatives from leaving on irregular migration journeys. Families had no choice but to push their cases forward on their own, with the support of local, community-based groups.

And yet, families and communities cannot continue to carry on these efforts on their own. State authorities bear the primary responsibility for responding to the needs of the families of missing migrants. With the support of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, IOM’s report, based on the findings of the qualitative research conducted in Ethiopia, includes policy implications and recommendations to drive action to support families of missing migrants in searching for their relatives and dealing with the impacts of their loss, including addressing the needs of families of missing migrants through a mental health and psycho-socially informed approach.

READ  Nigerian migrants’ sojourn in Middle East ends in woes

Authorities must provide families with the means to access information about their missing loved ones through an efficient, accessible, confidential and accountable process. There is urgent need for state-funded programmes to support families, which should be informed by an intersectional approach taking into account gender, age, disability, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and others. They should be developed with the participation of families themselves and/or of community-based groups representing them.

This story was written by Marta Sánchez Dionis and Kate Dearden from IOM’s Missing Migrants Project. Pseudonyms were used to protect the privacy of the families.

Find the new report “Families of missing migrants: Their search for answers, the impacts of loss and recommendations for improved support – Ethiopia” here.

“Living without them – Stories of families left behind” is a four-part podcast series produced by IOM about the research project with families of missing migrants.

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Investigation

Why Nigerian ladies may continue to be lured to Middle-East

Migrants at the Tripoli Airport preparing to board the flight home. Photo: IOM

 

By Gbenga Aderanti

 

For the Nigerian ladies who work in both the Middle East and Arab countries, it has always been one story of woe or the other.

But, despite the stories being told and the human degradation being faced by these Nigerian ladies, some of them still find it difficult to ignore the allure of Arab countries; even when they are not sure of what awaits them in these foreign lands.

Though the reports from the returnees from these countries are chilling and scary, many of the ladies are not dissuaded on their resolve to still go to places like Lebanon, Libya and Oman, Libya.

In some instances, many parents aid the movement of their wards on this perilous journey.

Recently, the Niger State Police Command rescued five victims from being taken to Libya by human traffickers. Two suspects were arrested during the rescue operation while the police said they were on the trail of other members of the syndicate.

The two suspects arrested Osaruwumen Ewodaru (49) and Olaoluwa Adebanjo (43), were caught with female victims, aged between 18 and 23 years, en route Libya.

Further investigation revealed that parents of the victims were in cahoots with the suspected traffickers.

One of the suspects, Osaruwumen claimed it was not his first time he was taking ladies to Libya.

Narrating how she got caught up in the journey, one of the victims, who was with Osaruwumen, said she was told to follow him to Libya where she would find her way to Italy to meet her uncle who works and lives there.

She said: “Osaruwumen lives in my area. He is a bricklayer. When he told my mother he was travelling, my mother asked me to follow him to Libya, and that when I got to Libya, I would cross to Italy to meet my Uncle in Italy.”

She claimed that it was not her decision to go, but her mother assured her that she would make a lot of money if she did.

Another victim, a 300 level student, said that a woman in her neighbourhood told her mother that her daughter in Libya said that workers were needed and they should go for the jobs.

“That was why my mother allowed me to go on the trip. They told us we would work as housemaids or cleaners, taking care of animals on the farm or cleaning old people’s homes.”

Another Nigerian lady, Adetutu, a Mass Communication graduate, who has had the misfortune of travelling to Oman, while narrating her experience to The Nation revealed that if not for her boyfriend, she would have died in Oman. “It was my boyfriend that facilitated my traveling to Oman and when I couldn’t cope with the work there, he was asked to pay N400, 000 before I could be allowed to come back to the country. She revealed that while she was lucky to come back, there are other Nigeria ladies that have been perpetually signed into slavery.

Though Adedutu has found her groove back as she is now married with two kids, she is still haunted by the unpalatable experience in the Middle east.

According to her, the first thing her sponsors in Oman did was to seize her phone and was told point blank that she would not be able to talk to her family members in Nigeria for the two years she would be staying with her ‘Master’.

“I would wake up daily at 5am and would not sleep until 11pm or midnight as I would be busy performing all manner of house chores. I was never offered breakfast until about 4 pm. Many times I would steal bread from the fridge and take it to the bathroom to eat.”

She was lucky as her rebellious attitude and her nagging made her employer reject her and sent her back to her agent’s office.

She returned to Nigeria without a dime. She was happy that she got her sanity back.

Adetutu blamed both the Nigerian ‘agents’ and radio presenters who, probably out of ignorance “allow criminals to use their air time to advertise this modern slavery.”

Another Nigerian lady, 22-year-old Damilola Falodun, in a report, said her stay in the oil rich Oman will continue to cause her nightmare.

According to her, most Oman men regard black women as sex objects just to satisfy their pleasure.

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She lost her parents and her life and education were in shambles. She needed to travel out of the country in order to escape from poverty. Unfortunately,

her initial plan was to go to Canada but this was not to be.

She was convinced by a pastor to take the option of Oman, ‘which was in need of workers,’ she took the option.

She was neither privy to the nature of the job nor her wages. All lines of communication had been severed.

“Under the contract agreement signed here in Nigeria by the agents, unknown to us, communication or the use of the phone was not allowed; hence it would be taken away from us. It was a two year arrangement contracted by Nigerians in collaboration with their Omanis counterparts there.

“The contracts were signed by the two parties secretly. The Omani agents would pay about N700, 000 to agents in Nigeria which would be used to facilitate our tickets, visas and traveling documents.

“But the dubious Nigerian agents would also demand about N600, 000 from us for the same purpose already paid for by the Omani agents. They told us that our own money was what they needed to facilitate the traveling documentation which was a lie. The moment you are gone, they signed you off,” she said in a report.

In Oman, she became a slave.

“In Oman, we were told by the Omani lords in a simple language, “You are our property. We have bought you for two years and you don’t own yourself until you finish the contract.”

“Now, the irony is that, the so-called masters would apply some tricks that would make you not to last for three months in a place.

The moment you became frustrated and wanted to change from your home to another home, the entire contract would be canceled, and you would start all over again. Under these conditions, many girls were inhumanly treated. Some died in the process while some became perpetual slaves to the masters. The job description was horrible. As a maid, you have no rest for a whole year.

We must serve an extended home of about six to seven families. In Oman, they keep nuclear homes and each housemaid serves the entire home without rest or any holiday. Other inhuman treatments include sexual harassment, violent physical attack by wicked masters, while some would push you out to make sure you did not complete your contract.

Moreover, every salary you work for before the completion of the contract would be paid in advance to the agents in Oman. You can only have access to your salary when you complete a contract with a house. Information about work conditions was kept secret and you dare not use their phone in their absence. The experience was horrible.”

According to her, all Arab countries treat young black girls the same way. They will not let them have any decent job even when you are qualified for it. They see us as objects for sex and maltreatment.

 

Nigerian ladies‘ll continue to emigrate to Arab countries

But despite the slavish treatment being meted to Nigerian ladies, it will be difficult for them to ignore the allure of the Middle- East and the Arab countries.

Speaking to The Nation, an agent who has been in Egypt for more than 15 years disclosed that many Nigerian ladies would continue to travel to Arab countries, irrespective of the chilling stories from these, they would continue to be taking their chances.

According to him, it is better out there for ladies who desire better lives for themselves.

He acknowledged that some of the ladies face lots of challenges, but insisted that some of them are still doing well for themselves and their families in Nigeria.

The agent, Ibrahim, pleaded that he would not like his full name in print and said, he had not done any other job outside getting jobs for the Nigerian ladies.

He confessed that the agency he operates is not registered but “there is nothing illegal about our activities.”

The agent blamed poverty in the land as the main reason Nigerian girls would continue to try their luck in the Arab countries.

“And until the situation of the country improves, Nigerian ladies will continue to explore other countries for better prospects.

“There is always a steady order for housekeeping jobs because there are so many families.”

Many of the ladies working in the middle east have complained that the work there is strenuous, Ibrahim told The Nation that while this may be true to a certain extent, he said some of the ladies are lazy to the extent that they cannot do simple house chores.

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Many of the ladies who had been lucky to return to Nigeria warned other ladies who wanted to embark on dangerous ventures of going to places like Oman and Lebanon, Ibrahim said he is always cautious about the country to take the ladies to.

Many of the returnee ladies have accused agents of taking ladies to do prostitution; he explained that for the ladies that are hard-working, the jobs of maids and housekeeping are available in Egypt.

“The Majority of those ladies who come to Oman do menial jobs, such as house- keeping jobs, only few do professional jobs and it depends on the agent that took you to the place.”

He warned ladies who are coming with the mindset of coming to Egypt to prostitute should perish the thought as they would be disappointed.

“You must not be caught prostituting in Egypt because the consequence of being caught is grave. Many of these ladies had been deported because they were caught engaging in prostitution.

While it may be true that some of the girls who are taken to other countries do prostitution, in Egypt, it may be a bit difficult as prostitution is not profitable here. This is because Nigerian men who are supposed to be their clients do not earn much to allow for such excesses.

He described Egypt as a home away from home because foreigners enjoy certain liberties there that are scarce in other countries.

Ibrahim revealed probably because of the way these Middle East are configured, they will continue to be attractive to ladies.

 

Why ladies get into trouble

While not discountenancing the activities of some Shylock employment agents, he explained that most of these ladies get into trouble because of their fraudulent behaviors.

According to him, most of the ladies even before they arrived in these countries had a game plan. “Instead of these ladies focusing on their jobs, they often try to play fast one on their employers, that is when they usually get into trouble.”

“I would advise the ladies coming to Egypt, to respect their culture. You have to be decent with the way you dress.

Don’t think you will make money from prostitution, stay away from it.

“As long as you are not tempted to steal from your employer, you are not likely to get into trouble. The money you are going to earn is enough to take care of you and your family.

“I always tell the ladies I give jobs not to follow men because it is the unemployed Nigerian men that would finish their earnings.

Egypt is far better than places like Oman. One of the ladies who left Cairo for Oman told me that her three years in Oman was a disaster.

“In Cairo, you don’t feel you are not in Nigeria, you are free, you visit people unlike Oman, it is work, work and work from morning to night it is work 24/7 there she told me that was her experience. Those in Oman do not have freedom like those in Egypt.

“In Egypt, Nigerians brings artises, we go for shows, we do naming ceremony and wedding just the way we do it in Nigeria, people do take aso ebi anytime there is naming ceremony or wedding, but you can’t do that in Oman. Egypt is liberal.

What the Nigerian ladies go through in the Middle East, according to Ibrahim, are exaggerated.

Commenting on a video released by some Nigerian ladies about their plight in Oman, he insisted that it could not have been the true reflection about what is happening in the country. “The question is why is it that most of them still prefer to stay there?

“The truth is that most ladies do not have the power to do these odd jobs that is why they complain a lot. I think the freedom they don’t have is what is making them complain. Imagine a person who was not doing house chores before leaving Nigeria and found herself being ordered around by some people?”

 

 

Win- win situation for all

For the good employment agents, it is a win-win situation for the ladies, sponsors and their agents.

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“In all honesty, it is the ladies who benefit more from the deal, not the agents and the sponsors.

“There is always an agreement between the sponsors and the ladies, they agree on the number of years the ladies would work to pay back on the money spent in facilitating the travelling abroad and the cost of getting jobs for these ladies.

The job of the agents abroad ends after collecting his commission after securing a house maid job for the Nigerian lady.

“But the sponsors benefit more. In most cases, they pay their sponsors for a year or more before they start earning money for themselves. But then the ladies collect stipends and upkeeps, part of which the lady sends back home to their families.

“The sponsor is expected to be responsible for her medical bills during the time she is paying back what was spent to bring her into the Middle- East or some of these area countries.

“Some of these girls have medical issues before leaving Nigeria; the sponsors are responsible for their medical well-being.

But after the 18 months when the lady must have finished paying back, some of them stay five to seven years, working and earning money on their own. I know of 10 girls that have stayed five- 10 years after 18 months. If truly the ladies are being exploited, they won’t get a dime.”

Ibrahim argued that if it were so bad as being painted in certain quarters, how come some of them come to Nigeria for holidays and still return to their place of work. Some of them do come home for holidays or leave.

“The employment agents like me are just brokers between the maids, agents and the employers. The maids may not be able to contact me directly, but they contact me via their sponsors.

“Anytime there is a vacancy, I would contact the sponsors, can you do it? This is the amount they are willing to pay, these are the terms and conditions, then I get my commission.”

 

Before you travel to Middle-East

There had been several instances where parents had been approached by agents that they would help in securing employment for ladies; Ibrahim warned parents should be wary of such offers as it could end in a disaster.

According to him, it is very difficult to get to a place like Egypt by road. “If anybody says they are is going to Egypt by road that means that person has fake visa and there is no way he would be able to enter Egypt

“Egyptian visas are difficult to get. That is why agents charge so much to facilitate travelling to Egypt.”

He disclosed that this is why those who are sponsoring these girls ask for big money and that is why they put a clause that the ladies would pay for 18 months.

The Nation gathered that some sponsors ask for between N400, 000-N450, 000 for visa fees from these ladies, excluding ticketing and other fees.

While there are many nationalities in places like Egypt, the only Africans, according to investigations, that can enter Egypt by road are the Sudanese, because the Egyptians see them as refugees and when these Sudanese enter Egypt, they don’t go to the cities, they head straight for the camps.

According to a source, “there are always housekeeping jobs/maids jobs readily available for ladies. Nigerians are not the only people doing their jobs, there are many Asians competing for the same job—including Indians, Pakistanis, and Filipinos.

He said he has not had an issue with his client, I always tell them that if they have a problem with a worker I tell them to call me first and I would settle it before it degenerates. I always make sure that those ladies have guarantors too before I can connect them with Egypt and that they need
them.

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Investigation

I’m not old enough to be a woman: a Burundi child’s protest ignored

“After raping me, he told me that I was still a child, and he threw me outside to sleep. This is the first time I have told anyone because I was scared to say something before.” And so, 12-year-old Elisabeth’s childhood was forever changed.

It had never been a happy, care-free upbringing after her stepfather forced her to live with her grandparents.

“Life was difficult with my grandparents, there was no food to eat. I left to stay with a friend whose neighbours said there was a woman in the village offering to take her to Tanzania,” says Elisabeth.

She knew she wouldn’t get a salary there, but it meant food on the table and a bed – for a while.

“The woman started to ask me to steal bananas from neighbours’ crops and threatened to kick me out if I refused. Another family in the village offered for me to go their friend’s house to work instead. They introduced me to a man that was to be my new husband. I refused and told them, ‘I did not come here to marry’. They laughed and took me to a bar nearby.”

She went along but did not drink. “We came back at night, and they told me I could sleep in the man’s house next door. When I refused, they suggested one of their girls could accompany me, but it was a trap. The man asked the girl to get him a beer and instead she locked the door from the outside, leaving me alone with him.

”’Even if you refuse to marry me, I already paid your dowry in beers tonight’, he told me.

‘I’m not old enough to be a woman’, I told him.”

She struggled and screamed but no one came. “They all could hear and knew what was happening. Eventually, he overpowered me. I was 11 or 12 years old at the time.”

Elisabeth went from house to house, staying with anyone who would take her in. “Some refused my offer of domestic work because I was a minor. Others offered me 30,000 Tanzanian shillings (EUR 11) a month, but I never received it. Each time I asked for it they would reply ‘later’, ‘another time’ or ‘how do you think we pay for your food and bed? That’s already money’.

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Eventually neighbours called a Tanzanian organisation called Kiwohede, and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Burundi, which collaborates with the NGO to assist and reunite child victims of trafficking (VoT), stepped in. ” Kiwohede took me into their shelter until IOM came and helped me to find my family and bring me home.”

Now 16 and too old for primary school, Elisabeth is being taught couture. ”I hope that I can be really good at it and become independent with this profession.”

Elisabeth’s disturbing story is all too familiar. Human trafficking is an issue that hangs in the air like smoke in Burundi. It permeates society as it does across the world in at least 148 countries.

Burundi is a source country for children subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking. According to the United States (US) Bureau of international labour affairs, children are trafficked to Tanzania for work in agriculture and gold mines or domestic work. Burundian girls are trafficked internationally for commercial sexual exploitation in Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and countries in the Middle East. In Burundi, trafficking in persons mostly involves forced labour, commonly for domestic work and childcare, along with agriculture, hospitality, construction, begging, and peddling.

 

From victim to survivor

The centre which helped Elisabeth works to identify and shelter girls who have been trafficked in one of the 23 districts and seven regions which they cover. They work with local authorities to conduct door-to-door visits to scout for children who are being exploited and to raise awareness through local radio stations.

“People often call to alert us of children in exploitative situations,” say Tuyizere*, the centre’s manager. The centre identifies child victims of trafficking (VoT), provides them temporary shelter, and it offers psychosocial counselling and life skills training. There are games, toys and an area to play group sports. Often these children are illiterate and are too old for primary school. Professionals teach life skills such as how to sew, to weave baskets, to cook or make soap, among other things. “The children also share their knowledge and talents with other children if they can,” adds Tuyizere.

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According to IOM Burundi’s Survivor Database, 49 per cent of survivors are identified and referred by local NGOs, followed by community leaders (17 per cent), other trafficking survivors (9 per cent), family and friends (7 per cent), IOM missions elsewhere (5 per cent), government officials (5 per cent), and social workers (5 per cent).

IOM conducts its own screening to identify the VoT and provides psychosocial counselling services, in addition to support provided by UNICEF – the leading United Nations actor on child protection. Finding the children’s families, assessing whether it is safe for them to return and helping them to reintegrate within their communities is integral.

 

Burundi ramps up efforts to combat Trafficking in Persons

IOM data show that over 1,000 VoT have been identified and assisted in Burundi since 2017 but this direct assistance is only a fraction of the effort to combat human trafficking in the country. IOM Burundi is engaged in several initiatives to strengthen government capacity to combat TiP, thanks to generous support from the Kingdom of the Netherlands and USAID. These include hosting mass awareness activities throughout the country and training police, magistrates, and immigration officers on TiP, Gender-based Violence and wider protection issues. According to the Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies in Burundi, labour laws are not sufficiently enforced which then encourages the normalization of certain forms of exploitation, such as non-remuneration for economic activities which affects more than a third of women and men between 15 and 49 years.

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Sixteen-year-old Elisabeth* during one of the sewing lessons she has taken up to provide for herself. Photo: IOM/Lauriane Wolfe

The Government of Burundi also plays a leading role in the fight against TiP. Recently, in its 2021 TiP report released on 1 July, the United States Department of State announced that Burundi had moved from Tier 3 to Tier 2 Watch List classification. It is now among the countries whose governments have made considerable efforts to meet the minimum standards for the elimination of TiP.

It has appointed an Inter-ministerial Anti-trafficking Ad hoc Committee made up of key ministries and adopted a 2014 Law on the Prevention and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons and Protection of VoT, in accordance with the 2000 Palermo Protocol.

Despite gains, more needs to be done to enhance prevention, protection, and prosecution in the country. To that end, IOM is collaborating with the Government of Burundi and its Committee to finalize standard operating procedures and develop a national referral mechanism to identify and refer victims to appropriate services – among other actions.

*Names have been changed to protect their identities

Support Voice for African Migrants


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Good journalism costs a lot of money. Yet only good journalism can ensure the possibility of a good society, an accountable democracy, and a transparent government.

For continued free access to the best and latest migration, trafficking, displacement and humanitarian reports including thorough investigative reports in these areas, we ask you to consider making a modest support to this noble endeavour.

By contributing to VOICE FOR AFRICAN MIGRANTS, you are helping to sustain a journalism of relevance and ensuring it remains free and available to all.
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Investigation

Joint statement: States must step up action to end alarming rise in trafficking in children

 

Despite progress during the past 20 years, trafficking in persons, particularly children, remains a high-profit, low-risk crime and a more concerted effort is needed to fight it, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children (SRSG) said today.

Marking the World Day Against Trafficking in Persons, António Vitorino, IOM’s Director General, and Najat Maalla M’jid, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative, made the following statement:

Today, one year after the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, we commend States on the progress made in the fight against trafficking in persons. Most countries now have and are implementing laws against human trafficking. Greater efforts are being made to apprehend and prosecute traffickers, and the rights and needs of trafficked persons to adequate care and protection are widely acknowledged.

However, despite all the work that has been undertaken over the last two decades, trafficking in persons, and in particular of children, continues to be a high profit–low risk crime, based upon the principles of supply and demand. Moreover, the impact of COVID-19 has increased the number of persons that find themselves in precarious situations where they are more prone to become victims of traffickers who prey on those who are vulnerable to take advantage and exploit them.

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As the Secretary-General stated in his report on trafficking in women and girls to the seventy-fifth session of the General Assembly, progress in elimination of trafficking remains slow. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2020 highlights that between 2017 and 2018, a total of 74,514 victims of trafficking were detected in over 110 countries. In 2018, for every 10 victims detected globally, about five were adult women and two were girls.

These figures in themselves are deeply concerning, but the reality is much grimmer, as it represents only a fraction of the real scope of trafficking around the globe.

This year we would like to highlight the specific vulnerability of children to trafficking. Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of violence against children, affecting an alarming number of children globally. About one third of the overall detected victims are children. Data from UNODC indicates that child trafficking has tripled in the past 15 years and the share of boys has increased five times.

Current research shows that migrant children are highly vulnerable to trafficking or related forms of exploitation. Data from IOM and UNICEF indicates that 8 out of 10 migrant children travelling the Central Mediterranean Route to Europe report exploitation which may amount to human trafficking. Children on this route are regularly held against their will, forced to work, or experience wage theft.

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Trafficking is both a form of and a result of violence against children. Children are treated like commodities which are bought, sold, traded and used over and over again. Trafficked children face physical, psychological and sexual violence from their traffickers and abusers. They are denied the opportunities for appropriate education and development and saddled with lingering economic after-effects such as indebtedness, all of which can have severe negative impacts on their lifelong health and wellbeing.

We would like to emphasize IOM´s and SRSG´s unwavering commitment towards combatting trafficking in persons. We also reiterate the importance placed in partnerships to address the multifaceted needs generated by this phenomenon – as we have learned – based on more than 30 years of experience in providing assistance worldwide. We know that isolated interventions in one area alone are not effective and that we need comprehensive approaches that not only respond to immediate needs but that also address the driving forces and the demand side of trafficking in persons, which are crucial to achieving Agenda 2030, while building back better.

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We must also learn from the victims and their struggles. Their strength in expressing their concerns, sharing their stories, suffering, abuse as well as their determination to help build

improved responses is not only crucial but also inspiring for all of us. IOM, to date, has assisted over 100,000 victims of trafficking to regain their freedom and start on their path to recovery.

As 2021 is the International Year for the Elimination of Child Labour, and under the overall theme of the Global Campaign of the UN Inter-Agency Coordination Group against Trafficking in Persons, we appeal for accelerated action to end child trafficking.

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